Design requirements for automatic fire alarm system for residential buildings


The "Fire Automatic Alarm System Design Specification" […]

The "Fire Automatic Alarm System Design Specification" implemented in 2014 added the contents of the automatic fire alarm system for residential buildings, including system form, system design, and setting of each component.
    (1) Types of residential buildings where automatic fire alarm systems are required
    In the "Fire Automatic Alarm System Design Specification" (hereinafter referred to as "Alarm Specification"), only how to design and install the residential fire automatic alarm system is specified, which solves the engineering application problem. The Code for Fire Protection of Building Design (GB50016-2014) clearly defines the types of residential buildings that need to be equipped with automatic fire alarm systems:
    (1) For residential buildings with a building height greater than 100 m, an automatic fire alarm system shall be provided;
    (2) For residential buildings with a building height greater than 54m but not more than 100m, an automatic fire alarm system shall be provided in the public part of the building, and a fire detector shall be provided in the set;
    (3) For high-rise residential buildings with a building height of not more than 54m, an automatic fire alarm system should be installed in the public part. When setting up fire-fighting facilities requiring linkage control, an automatic fire alarm system should be installed in the public part;
    (4) The public part of the high-rise residential building shall be provided with a sound alarm device or emergency broadcast with voice function.
    (two) system type selection
    In the new edition of the "Alarm Code", Articles 7.1 and 7.2 stipulate the system forms of the four automatic fire alarm systems for residential buildings A, B, C and D, and specify the system form selection and system design. . When selecting the type of residential alarm system, the system type is determined mainly according to whether the alarm system needs to be linked with other fire-fighting equipment and the actual needs of the household.
    (1) Class A systems should be selected for the automatic fire alarm system in the public part of the building. The public parts do not need to be set to select the B, C, and D systems according to the actual situation. Class A systems should be selected for residential buildings with a fire rating of more than two.
    (2) There are other fire-fighting equipment in the building that need to be controlled by linkage. A type A system should be selected, and a fire control room or duty room should be set up. If there is no requirement for fire linkage control, the system can be selected according to the requirements of the household, and all four system types are available.
    (3) Most residential areas in small cities or rural areas are unitized residential buildings. There is no centralized management system for properties, and no other fire-fighting equipment needs linkage control. If automatic fire alarm system is installed, Class C systems, Class C systems can be selected. It can be designed as a unitized system for unitized residential buildings without the need to set up a fire control center. The fire alarm controller is set on the first floor.
    (4) The "Alarm Code" stipulates that Class D houses and residential buildings that have already been put into use can be selected for Class D systems. The D-type system uses a separate fire detection alarm, which can be installed directly, is simple and convenient, and does not even need to be connected to the residential power supply line. If a security system is installed in the house, the smoke detector can be connected to achieve integrated control of the internal safety of the home. When a fire breaks out in the middle of the night, the fire alarm message can trigger all the lights, sounds, etc. in the house, awaken the sleeping people, help people escape in the fire, and reduce the death and injury rate.
    (three) bus short circuit isolator settings
    Article 3.1.6 of the "Alarm Code" stipulates that when the bus crosses the fire zone, a bus short-circuit isolator should be placed at the crossing. Most residential buildings are panel buildings, and bus shorting isolators are required on each floor.
    In the case of a high-rise residential building, the simplest automatic fire alarm system is installed in each public section, including a fire detector, a manual alarm button, a fire alarm, and a fire hydrant button. To set up a bus short-circuit isolator, this will greatly increase the initial construction costs and the maintenance and labor of the later maintenance. It should be combined with the characteristics of residential buildings, the setting of the bus short-circuit isolators can be carried out according to the general regulations, that is, the number of protection devices should not exceed 32 settings.
    (4) Household fire detector settings
    1. Smoke detector
    The "Alarm Code" stipulates the location and quantity of smoke detectors in the home, and does not specify the specific types of detectors.
    In residential buildings, fires often have a long period of smoldering. Ion-smoke products are mainly suitable for fast-burning fires. In the case of smoldering fires, they often fail to respond in time or even respond at all. In this case, the photo-electricity smoke or the photoelectric/ion composite type smoke alarm will act quickly, and it is recommended to use the photo-electricity smoke type product in the family bedroom and living room. The reliability of household smoke detectors mainly comes from the power supply. If the power supply mode of the indoor distribution line is used to ensure continuous power supply, the battery-powered independent smoke detector should pay attention to timely replacement of the battery to ensure effective fire detection. Sex and timeliness.
    2. Combustible gas detector
    The kitchen produces a lot of soot, and the use of a smoke detector produces a high false alarm rate. Moreover, flammable gas is used in the kitchen for cooking. The leakage of flammable gas can cause fire. Therefore, a flammable gas detector should be installed in the kitchen. The type of detector is determined by the type of flammable gas used by the household.
    In addition, the residential electrical fire incidence rate is about 40%, and the leakage fire alarm system and the residual current fire alarm system can be installed.
    Foreign fire data statistics show that the installation of automatic fire alarm system in residential buildings effectively reduces the casualty rate of residential fires. China's new version of the "Alarm Code" has also added content on the automatic fire alarm system for residential buildings. Relevant designers should carefully study and study this part of the content, and design appropriate alarm systems for different building types to reduce the fire risk of residential buildings.